The World's Healthiest Foods are health-promoting foods that can change your life.

Try the exciting new recipe from Day 4 of our upcoming 7-Day Meal Plan.

The George Mateljan Foundation is a not-for-profit foundation with no commercial interests or
advertising. Our mission is to help you eat and cook the healthiest way for optimal health.
References
Each and every month at WHFoods, we rely on hundreds of research studies to keep you up-to-date on scientific information about food, nutrition, and health. (For more information about the role of science in our website content, please see Our Approach to Science Research). Among the featured sections of our website are 100 food profiles and 31 nutrient profiles. In terms of scientific review, we make these profiles one of our website priorities. In each of these profiles, you will find a dedicated References section that contains an alphabetized list of key scientific references involving that particular food or nutrient. In order to make all of these key food and nutrient research references available to you in a single place, we created this WHFoods Reference Library. You can use the radio buttons below to start with either Foods or Nutrients. Then simply choose the specific food or nutrient of interest, and click on it to obtain an alphabetized list of key research references.

Foods & Spices

Vegetables

Fruits

Seafood

Nuts & Seeds

Beans & Legumes

Poultry & Meats

Eggs & Dairy

Grains

Herbs & Spices

Cod references

  • Beydoun MA, Kaufman JS, Satia JA, Rosamond W, Folsom AR. Plasma n-3 fatty acids and the risk of cognitive decline in older adults: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Apr;85(4):1103-11. 2007. PMID:17413112.
  • Chrysohoou C, Panagiotakos DB, Pitsavos C, Skoumas J, Krinos X, Chloptsios Y, Nikolaou V, Stefanadis C. Long-term fish consumption is associated with protection against arrhythmia in healthy persons in a Mediterranean region--the ATTICA study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 May;85(5):1385-91. 2007. PMID:17490977.
  • Chua B, Flood V, Rochtchina E, Wang JJ, Smith W, Mitchell P. Dietary fatty acids and the 5-year incidence of age-related maculopathy. Arch Ophthalmol. 2006 Jul;124(7):981-6. 2006. PMID:16832023.
  • Connor WE, Connor SL. The importance of fish and docosahexaenoic acid in Alzheimer disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Apr;85(4):929-30. 2007. PMID:17413088.
  • Dhonukshe-Rutten RA, Lips M, de Jong N et al. Vitamin B-12 status is associated with bone mineral content and bone mineral density in frail elderly women but not in men. J Nutr. 2003 Mar; 133(3):801-7. 2003.
  • Ensminger AH, Esminger M. K. J. e. al. Food for Health: A Nutrition Encyclopedia. Clovis, California: Pegus Press; 1986. 1986. PMID:15210.
  • Fritschi L, Ambrosini GL, Kliewer EV, Johnson KC; Canadian Cancer Registries Epidemiologic Research Group. Dietary fish intake and risk of leukaemia, multiple myeloma, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2004 Apr;13(4):532-7. 2004. PMID:15066916.
  • Green KN, Martinez-Coria H, Khashwji H, Hall EB, Yurko-Mauro KA, Ellis L, Laferla FM. Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid and Docosapentaenoic Acid Ameliorate Amyloid-{beta} and Tau Pathology via a Mechanism Involving Presenilin 1 Levels. J Neurosci. 2007 Apr 18;27(16):4385-95. 2007. PMID:17442823.
  • Harris WS, Pottala JV, Sands SA, et al. Comparison of the effects of fish and fish-oil capsules on the n 3 fatty acid content of blood cells and plasma phospholipids. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Dec;86(6):1621-5. 2007. PMID:18065578.
  • He K, Song Y, Daviglus ML, Liu K, Van Horn L, Dyer AR, Goldbourt U, Greenland P. Fish consumption and incidence of stroke: a meta-analysis of cohort studies. Stroke. 2004 Jul;35(7):1538-42. 2004. PMID:15155968.
  • Holguin F, Tellez-Rojo MM, Lazo M, Mannino D, Schwartz J, Hernandez M, Romieu I. Cardiac autonomic changes associated with fish oil vs soy oil supplementation in the elderly. Chest. 2005 Apr;127(4):1102-7. 2005. PMID:15821181.
  • Iso H, Rexrode KM, Stampfer MJ, et al. Intake of fish and omega-3 fatty acids and risk of stroke in women. JAMA 2001; 285(3):304-12. 2001.
  • Kiecolt-Glaser JK, Belury MA, Porter K, Beversdorf DQ, Lemeshow S, Glaser R. Depressive Symptoms, omega-6:omega-3 Fatty Acids, and Inflammation in Older Adults. Psychosom Med. 2007 Mar 30; [Epub ahead of print]. 2007. PMID:17401057.
  • Lukiw WJ, Cui JG, Marcheselli VL, Bodker M, Botkjaer A, Gotlinger K, Serhan CN, Bazan NG. A role for docosahexaenoic acid-derived neuroprotectin D1 in neural cell survival and Alzheimer disease. J Clin Invest. 2005 Oct;115(10):2774-83. 2005. PMID:16151530.
  • Ma QL, Teter B, Ubeda OJ, et al. Omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid increases SorLA/LR11, a sorting protein with reduced expression in sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD): relevance to AD prevention. J Neurosci. 2007 Dec 26;27(52):14299-307. 2007. PMID:18160637.
  • Mazza M, Pomponi M, Janiri L, Bria P, Mazza S. Omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidants in neurological and psychiatric diseases: an overview. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2007 Jan 30;31(1):12-26. Epub 2006 Aug 28. 2007. PMID:16938373.
  • Moore CS, Bryant SP, Mishra GD, Krebs JD, Browning LM, Miller GJ, Jebb SA. Oily fish reduces plasma triacylglycerols: a primary prevention study in overweight men and women. Nutrition. 2006 Oct;22(10):1012-24. 2006. PMID:17027436.
  • Mozaffarian D, Gottdiener JS, Siscovick DS. Intake of tuna or other broiled or baked fish versus fried fish and cardiac structure, function, and hemodynamics. Am J Cardiol. 2006 Jan 15;97(2):216-22. 2006. PMID:16442366.
  • Mozaffarian D, Prineas RJ, Stein PK, Siscovick DS. Dietary fish and n-3 fatty acid intake and cardiac electrocardiographic parameters in humans. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006 Aug 1;48(3):478-84. 2006. PMID:16875972.
  • Mozaffarian D, Psaty BM, Rimm EB, Lemaitre RN, Burke GL, Lyles MF, Lefkowitz D, Siscovick DS. Fish intake and risk of incident atrial fibrillation. Circulation. 2004 Jul 27;110(4):368-73. 2004. PMID:15262826.
  • Nurk E, Drevon CA, Refsum H, et al. Cognitive performance among the elderly and dietary fish intake: the Hordaland Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Nov;86(5):1470-8. 2007. PMID:17991661.
  • Rhodes LE, Shahbakhti H, Azurdia RM, Moison RM, Steenwinkel MJ, Homburg MI, Dean MP, McArdle R, Beijersbergen van Henegonwen GM, Epe B, Vink AA. Effect of eicosapentaenoic acid, an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, on UVR-related cancer risk in humans. An assessment of early genotoxic markers. Carcinogenesis. 2003 May;24(5):919-25. 2003. PMID:12771037.
  • Schaefer EJ, Bongard V, Beiser AS, Lamon-Fava S, Robins SJ, Au R, Tucker KL, Kyle DJ, Wilson PW, Wolf PA. Plasma phosphatidylcholine docosahexaenoic acid content and risk of dementia and Alzheimer disease: the Framingham Heart Study. Arch Neurol. 2006 Nov;63(11):1545-50. 2006. PMID:17101822.
  • Seddon JM, George S, Rosner B. Cigarette smoking, fish consumption, omega-3 fatty acid intake, and associations with age-related macular degeneration: the US Twin Study of Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Arch Ophthalmol. 2006 Jul;124(7):995-1001. 2006. PMID:16832023.
  • Steffen LM, Folsom AR, Cushman M, Jacobs DR Jr, Rosamond WD. Greater Fish, Fruit, and Vegetable Intakes Are Related to Lower Incidence of Venous Thromboembolism. The Longitudinal Investigation of Thromboembolism Etiology. Circulation. 2006 Dec 18; [Epub ahead of print] . 2006. PMID:17179018.
  • Tabak C, Wijga AH, de Meer G, Janssen NA, Brunekreef B, Smit HA. Diet and asthma in Dutch school children (ISAAC-2). Thorax. 2006 Dec;61(12):1048-53. Epub 2005 Oct 21. 2006. PMID:16244092.
  • Theodoratou E, McNeill G, Cetnarskyj R, Farrington SM, Tenesa A, Barnetson R, Porteous M, Dunlop M, Campbell H. Dietary Fatty acids and colorectal cancer: a case-control study. Am J Epidemiol. 2007 Jul 15;166(2):181-95. Epub 2007 May 9. 2007. PMID:17493949.
  • Ueshima H, Stamler J, Elliott P, Chan Q, Brown IJ, Carnethon MR, Daviglus ML, He K, Moag-Stahlberg A, Rodriguez BL, Steffen LM, Van Horn L, Yarnell J, Zhou B. Food Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intake of Individuals (Total, Linolenic Acid, Long-Chain) and Their Blood Pressure. INTERMAP Study. Hypertension. 2007 Jun 4; [Epub ahead of print] . 2007. PMID:17548718.
  • van Gelder BM, Tijhuis M, Kalmijn S, Kromhout D. Fish consumption, n-3 fatty acids, and subsequent 5-y cognitive decline in elderly men: the Zutphen Elderly Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Apr;85(4):1142-7. 2007. PMID:17413117.
  • Wolk A, Larsson SC, Johansson JE, Ekman P. Long-term fatty fish consumption and renal cell carcinoma incidence in women. JAMA. 2006 Sep 20;296(11):1371-6. 2006. PMID:16985229.
  • Wood, Rebecca. The Whole Foods Encyclopedia. New York, NY: Prentice-Hall Press; 1988. 1988. PMID:15220.

Send this page to a friend...

rss


Newsletter SignUp

Your Email:

Find Out What Foods You Should Eat This Week

Also find out about the recipe, nutrient and hot topic of the week on our home page.

 

Everything you want to know about healthy eating and cooking from our new book.
2nd Edition
Order this Incredible 2nd Edition at the same low price of $39.95 and also get 2 FREE gifts valued at $51.95. Read more


Healthy Eating
Healthy Cooking
Nutrients from Food
Website Articles
Community
Privacy Policy and Visitor Agreement
References
For education only, consult a healthcare practitioner for any health problems.

We're Number 1
in the World!

35 million visitors per year.
The World's Healthiest Foods website is a leading source of information and expert on the Healthiest Way of Eating and Cooking. It's one of the most visited website on the internet when it comes to "Healthiest Foods" and "Healthiest Recipes" and comes up #1 on a Google search for these phrases.

Over 100 Quick &
Easy Recipes

Our Recipe Assistant will help you find the recipe that suits your personal needs. The majority of recipes we offer can be both prepared and cooked in 20 minutes or less from start to finish; a whole meal can be prepared in 30 minutes. A number of them can also be prepared ahead of time and enjoyed later.

World's Healthiest
Foods
is expanded

What's in our new book:
  • 180 more pages
  • Smart Menu
  • Nutrient-Rich Cooking
  • 300 New Recipes
  • New Nutrient Articles and Profiles
  • New Photos and Design
privacy policy and visitor agreement | who we are | site map | what's new
For education only, consult a healthcare practitioner for any health problems.
© 2001-2017 The George Mateljan Foundation, All Rights Reserved