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Introducing our New World's Healthiest Foods Menu! You can get 100% of nutrients from the WHFoods.

The George Mateljan Foundation is a not-for-profit foundation with no commercial interests or
advertising. Our mission is to help you eat and cook the healthiest way for optimal health.
Each and every month at WHFoods, we rely on hundreds of research studies to keep you up-to-date on scientific information about food, nutrition, and health. (For more information about the role of science in our website content, please see Our Approach to Science Research). Among the featured sections of our website are 100 food profiles and 31 nutrient profiles. In terms of scientific review, we make these profiles one of our website priorities. In each of these profiles, you will find a dedicated References section that contains an alphabetized list of key scientific references involving that particular food or nutrient. In order to make all of these key food and nutrient research references available to you in a single place, we created this WHFoods Reference Library. You can use the radio buttons below to start with either Foods or Nutrients. Then simply choose the specific food or nutrient of interest, and click on it to obtain an alphabetized list of key research references.

Foods & Spices




Nuts & Seeds

Beans & Legumes

Poultry & Meats

Eggs & Dairy


Herbs & Spices

Chicken, pasture-raised references

  • Anderson KE, Sinha R, Kulldorff M, et al. Meat intake and cooking techniques: associations with pancreatic cancer. DMutat Res. 2002 Sep 30;506-507:225-31.
  • Castellini C, Boggia A, Cortina C, et al. A multicriteria approach for measuring the sustainability of different poultry production systems. Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 37, December 2012, Pages 192-201.
  • Cohen SJ, van den Munckhof T, Voets G, et al. Comparison of ESBL contamination in organic and conventional retail chicken meat. Int J Food Microbiol. 2012 Mar 15;154(3):212-4. doi: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2011.12.034.
  • Dosil-Diaz O, Ruano-Ravina A, Gestal-Otero JJ, et al. Meat and fish consumption and risk of lung cancer: A case-control study in Galicia, Spain. Cancer Letters, Volume 252, Issue 1, 8 July 2007, Pages 115-122.
  • Fernandes AR, Foxall C, Lovett A, et al. The assimilation of dioxins and PCBs in conventionally reared farm animals: Occurrence and biotransfer factors. Chemosphere, Volume 83, Issue 6, April 2011, Pages 815-822
  • Gibbs RA, Rymer C, and Givens DI. Fatty acid composition of cooked chicken meat and chicken meat products as influenced by price range at retail. Food Chemistry, Volume 138, Issues 2-3, 1 June 2013, Pages 1749-1756.
  • Kartikasari LR, Hughes RJ, Geier MS, et al. Dietary alpha-linolenic acid enhances omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in chicken tissues. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, Volume 87, Issues 4-5, October-November 2012, Pages 103-109.
  • Lee MRF, Tweed JKS, Kim EJ, et al. Beef, chicken and lamb fatty acid analysis - a simplified direct bimethylation procedure using freeze-dried material. Meat Science, Volume 92, Issue 4, December 2012, Pages 863-866.
  • Lestari SI, Han F, Wang F, et al. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella serovars in conventional and organic chickens from Louisiana retail stores. J Food Prot. 2009 Jun;72(6):1165-72.
  • McNeill S and Van Elswyk ME. Red meat in global nutrition. Meat Science, Volume 92, Issue 3, November 2012, Pages 166-173.
  • Melanson K, Gootman J, Myrdal A, et al. Weight loss and total lipid profile changes in overweight women consuming beef or chicken as the primary protein source. Nutrition, Volume 19, Issue 5, May 2003, Pages 409-414.
  • Miranda JM, Guarddon M, Mondragon A, et al. [Antimicrobial resistance in Enterococcus spp. strains isolated from organic chicken, conventional chicken, and turkey meat: a comparative survey. J Food Prot. 2007 Apr;70(4):1021-4.
  • Monro JA, Leon R, and Puri BK. The risk of lead contamination in bone broth diets. Medical Hypotheses, Volume 80, Issue 4, April 2013, Pages 389-390
  • Napolitano F, Castellini C, Naspetti S, et al. Consumer preference for chicken breast may be more affected by information on organic production than by product sensory properties. Poult Sci. 2013 Mar;92(3):820-6. doi: 10.3382/ps.2012-02633.
  • O'Callaghan NJ, Toden S, Bird AR, et al. Colonocyte telomere shortening is greater with dietary red meat than white meat and is attenuated by resistant starch. Clinical Nutrition, Volume 31, Issue 1, February 2012, Pages 60-64.
  • Ollinger M, MacDonald J, and Madison M. Structural Change in U.S. Chicken and Turkey Slaughter. Agricultural Economic Report No. (AER-787) 48 pp, November 2000. Economic Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture.
  • Ronco AL, De Stefani E, and Fabra A. White meat intake and the risk of breast cancer: a case-control study in Montevideo, Uruguay. Nutrition Research, Volume 23, Issue 2, February 2003, Pages 151-162.
  • Smith-Spangler C, Brandeau ML, Hunter GE, et al. Are organic foods safer or healthier than conventional alternatives?: a systematic review. Ann Intern Med. 2012 Sep 4;157(5):348-66. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-157-5-201209040-00007.
  • Van Loo E, Caputo V, Nayga RM Jr, et al. Effect of organic poultry purchase frequency on consumer attitudes toward organic poultry meat. J Food Sci. 2010 Sep;75(7):S384-97. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2010.01775.x.
  • Wolmarans P, Laubscher JA, van der Merwe S, et al. Effects of a prudent diet containing either lean beef and mutton or fish and skinless chicken on the plasma lipoproteins and fatty acid composition of triacylglycerol and cholesteryl ester of hypercholesterolemic subjects. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, Volume 10, Issue 10, October 1999, Pages 598-608.
  • Xu B, Sun J, Sun Y, et al. No evidence of decreased risk of colorectal adenomas with white meat, poultry, and fish intake: a meta-analysis of observational studies. Annals of Epidemiology, Volume 23, Issue 4, April 2013, Pages 215-222.

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