The World's Healthiest Foods are health-promoting foods that can change your life.

Try our WHFoods Meal Plan.

The George Mateljan Foundation is a not-for-profit foundation with no commercial interests or
advertising. Our mission is to help you eat and cook the healthiest way for optimal health.
Each and every month at WHFoods, we rely on hundreds of research studies to keep you up-to-date on scientific information about food, nutrition, and health. (For more information about the role of science in our website content, please see Our Approach to Science Research). Among the featured sections of our website are 100 food profiles and 31 nutrient profiles. In terms of scientific review, we make these profiles one of our website priorities. In each of these profiles, you will find a dedicated References section that contains an alphabetized list of key scientific references involving that particular food or nutrient. In order to make all of these key food and nutrient research references available to you in a single place, we created this WHFoods Reference Library. You can use the radio buttons below to start with either Foods or Nutrients. Then simply choose the specific food or nutrient of interest, and click on it to obtain an alphabetized list of key research references.

Foods & Spices




Nuts & Seeds

Beans & Legumes

Poultry & Meats

Eggs & Dairy


Herbs & Spices

Mushrooms, shiitake references

  • Afrin S, Rakib MA, Kim BH, et al. Eritadenine from Edible Mushrooms Inhibits Activity of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme in Vitro. J Agric Food Chem. 2016 Mar 23;64(11):2263-8.
  • Avinash J, Vinay S, Jha K, et al. The Unexplored Anticaries Potential of Shiitake Mushroom. Pharmacogn Rev. 2016 Jul-Dec;10(20):100-104. doi: 10.4103/0973-7847.
  • Bisen PS, Baghel RK, Sanodiya BS et al. Lentinus edodes: a macrofungus with pharmacological activities. Curr Med Chem. 2010;17(22):2419-30. Review. 2010.
  • Bruhn JN, Mihail JD, and Pickens JB. Forest farming of shiitake mushrooms: an integrated evaluation of management practices. Bioresour Technol. 2009 Dec;100(24):6472-80. Epub 2009 Jul 28. 2009.
  • Chan GCF, Chan WK, and Sze DMY. The effects of -glucan on human immune and cancer cells. Journal of Hematology & Oncology 2009, 2:25 (10 June 2009). 2009.
  • Chandra L, Alexander H, Traoré D et al. White button and shiitake mushrooms reduce the incidence and severity of collagen-induced arthritis in dilute brown non-agouti mice. J Nutr. 2011 Jan;141(1):131-6. Epub 2010 Nov 24. 2011.
  • Chandra LC, Traore D, French C, et al. White button, portabella, and shiitake mushroom supplementation up-regulates interleukin-23 secretion in acute dextran sodium sulfate colitis C57BL/6 mice and murine macrophage J.744.1 cell line. Nutrition Research, Volume 33, Issue 5, May 2013, pages 388-396.
  • Dai X, Stanilka JM, Rowe CA, et al. Consuming Lentinula edodes (Shiitake) Mushrooms Daily Improves Human Immunity: A Randomized Dietary Intervention in Healthy Young Adults. J Am Coll Nutr. 2015;34(6):478-87.
  • Eldridge HC, Milliken A, Farmer C, et al. Efficient remediation of 17α-ethinylestradiol by Lentinula edodes (shiitake) laccase. Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 10, April 2017, pages 64-68.
  • Falandysz J. Selenium in edible mushrooms. J Environ Sci Health C Environ Carcinog Ecotoxicol Rev. 2008 Jul-Sep;26(3):256-99. 2008.
  • Grundemann C, Garcia-Kaufer M, Sauer B, et al. Comparative chemical and biological investigations of β-glucan-containing products from shiitake mushrooms. Journal of Functional Foods, Volume 18, Part A, October 2015, pages 692-702.
  • Hearst R, Nelson D, McCollum G et al. An examination of antibacterial and antifungal properties of constituents of Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) and oyster (Pleurotus ostreatus) mushrooms. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2009 Feb;15(1):5-7. Epub 2008 Dec 2. 2009.
  • Hong C, Qing X, Ting Z, et al. Quality grading method of Shiitake based on texture analysis. Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering, 2014, 30, 3, pages 285-292.
  • Huang X and Nie S. The structure of mushroom polysaccharides and their beneficial role in health. Food Funct. 2015 Oct;6(10):3205-17.
  • Kojima H, Akaki J, Nakajima S et al. Structural analysis of glycogen-like polysaccharides having macrophage-activating activity in extracts of Lentinula edodes mycelia. J Nat Med. 2010 Jan;64(1):16-23. Epub 2009 Aug 27. 2010.
  • Kozarski M, Klaus A, Niksic M, et al. Antioxidative activities and chemical characterization of polysaccharide extracts from the widely used mushrooms Ganoderma applanatum, Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinus edodes and Trametes versicolor. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, Volume 26, Issues 1—2, May—June 2012, pages 144-153.
  • Kuvibidila S and French C. White button, shiitake, and portabella mushrooms inhibit the secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the proliferation of the androgen dependent LNCap prostate cancer cell line. FASEB J, Apr 2011; 25: 979.11. 2011.
  • Liu Y, Lei XY, Chen LF, et al. A novel cysteine desulfurase influencing organosulfur compounds in Lentinula edodes. Sci Rep. 2015 Jun 9;5:10047. doi: 10.1038/srep10047.
  • Llorente-Mirandes T, Barbero M, Rubio R, et al. Occurrence of inorganic arsenic in edible Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) products. Food Chemistry, Volume 158, 1 September 2014, pages 207-215.
  • Mata JL and Mishra NT. Comparative Study of Worldwide Species of Genus Lentinus (=Lentinula, Higher Basidiomycetes) Based on Linear Mycelium Growth. Int J Med Mushrooms. 2015;17(5):481-9.
  • Money NP. Are mushrooms medicinal? Fungal Biology, Volume 120, Issue 4, April 2016, pages 449-453.
  • Ramberg JE, Nelson ED, and Sinnott RA. Immunomodulatory dietary polysaccharides: a systematic review of the literature. Nutrition Journal 2010, 9:54 (18 November 2010): 1-22. 2010.
  • Rao JR, Smyth TJ, Millar BC et al. Antimicrobial properties of shiitake mushrooms (Lentinula edodes). Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2009 Jun;33(6):591-2. Epub 2008 Dec 31. 2009.
  • Ren M, Ye L,. Hao X, et al. Polysaccharides from Tricholoma matsutake and Lentinus edodes enhance 5-fluorouracil-mediated H22 cell growth inhibition. Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Volume 34, Issue 3, June 2014, pages 309-316.
  • Rop O, Mlcek J, and Jurikova T. Beta-glucans in higher fungi and their health effects. Nutr Rev. 2009 Nov;67(11):624-31. Review. 2009.
  • Sasidharan S, Aravindran S, Latha LY et al. In vitro antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective effects of Lentinula edodes against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity. Molecules. 2010 Jun 23;15(6):4478-89. 2010.
  • Stephany MP, Chung S, Handler MZ, et al. Shiitake Mushroom Dermatitis: A Review. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2016 Oct;17(5):485-489.
  • Ren M, Ye L,. Hao X, et al. Lion's mane and it's health benefits, Volume 34, Issue 3, June 2017, pages 309-316.
  • Tian Y, Zhao Y, Huang J, et al. Effects of different drying methods on the product quality and volatile compounds of whole shiitake mushrooms. Food Chemistry, Volume 197, Part A, 15 April 2016, pages 714-722.
  • Takakura Y, Sofuku K, Tsunashima M, et al. Lentiavidins: Novel avidin-like proteins with low isoelectric points from shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes). J Biosci Bioeng. 2016 Apr;121(4):420-3.
  • Tokimoto K, Tabuchi A, Sakuno E, et al. Comparative analyses of anatomical, physical, and chemical properties of dried shiitake mushrooms (Lentinula edodes) cultivated on logs and sawdust media. Reports of the Tottori Mycological Institute, 2016, No.46, pages 12-22.
  • Wang L, Wang C, Gao X, et al. Purification, characterization and anti-aging capacity of mycelia zinc polysaccharide by Lentinus edodes SD-08. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2015 Apr 9;15:111. doi: 10.1186/s12906-015-0630-7.

We're in the
World's Top 10!

35 million visitors per year.
The World's Healthiest Foods website is a leading source of information and expertise on the Healthiest Way of Eating and Cooking. It's one of the most visited websites on the internet when it comes to "Healthiest Foods" and "Healthiest Recipes" and comes up in the Top 10 websites on a Google search for these phrases.

Over 100 Quick &
Easy Recipes

Our Recipe Assistant will help you find the recipe that suits your personal needs. The majority of recipes we offer can be both prepared and cooked in 20 minutes or less from start to finish; a whole meal can be prepared in 30 minutes. A number of them can also be prepared ahead of time and enjoyed later.

World's Healthiest
is expanded

What's in our new book:
  • 180 more pages
  • Smart Menu
  • Nutrient-Rich Cooking
  • 300 New Recipes
  • New Nutrient Articles and Profiles
  • New Photos and Design
privacy policy and visitor agreement | who we are | site map | what's new
For education only, consult a healthcare practitioner for any health problems.
© 2001-2021 The George Mateljan Foundation, All Rights Reserved