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Introducing our New World's Healthiest Foods Menu! You can get 100% of nutrients from the WHFoods.

The George Mateljan Foundation is a not-for-profit foundation with no commercial interests or
advertising. Our mission is to help you eat and cook the healthiest way for optimal health.
Each and every month at WHFoods, we rely on hundreds of research studies to keep you up-to-date on scientific information about food, nutrition, and health. (For more information about the role of science in our website content, please see Our Approach to Science Research). Among the featured sections of our website are 100 food profiles and 31 nutrient profiles. In terms of scientific review, we make these profiles one of our website priorities. In each of these profiles, you will find a dedicated References section that contains an alphabetized list of key scientific references involving that particular food or nutrient. In order to make all of these key food and nutrient research references available to you in a single place, we created this WHFoods Reference Library. You can use the radio buttons below to start with either Foods or Nutrients. Then simply choose the specific food or nutrient of interest, and click on it to obtain an alphabetized list of key research references.

Foods & Spices




Nuts & Seeds

Beans & Legumes

Poultry & Meats

Eggs & Dairy


Herbs & Spices

Cow's milk, grass-fed references

  • Agricultural Research Service. Putting Cows Out to Pasture: An Environmental Plus. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. Agricultural Research Magazine, May/June 2011; vol. 59(5): pages 18-19.
  • Benbrook CM, Butler G, Latif MA, et al. (2013). Organic Production Enhances Milk Nutritional Quality by Shifting Fatty Acid Composition: A United States—Wide, 18-Month Study. PLoS ONE 8(12): e82429.
  • Choi HK, Atkinson K, Karlson EW, et al. Purine-rich foods, dairy and protein intake, and the risk of gout in men. N Engl J Med. 2004 Mar 11;350(11):1093-103. 2004.
  • Claeys WL, Cardoen S, Daube G et al. Raw or heated cow milk consumption: Review of risks and benefits. Food Control, Volume 31, Issue 1, May 2013, Pages 251-262.
  • Cornish J, Callon KE, Naot D et al. Lactoferrin is a potent regulator of bone cell activity and increases bone formation in vivo. Endocrinology September 1, 2004 vol. 145 no. 9 4366-4374.
  • Couvreur S, Hurtaud C, Lopez C et al. The Linear Relationship Between the Proportion of Fresh Grass in the Cow Diet, Milk Fatty Acid Composition, and Butter Properties. Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 89, Issue 6, June 2006, Pages 1956-1969.
  • Crittenden RG and Bennett LE. Cow's milk allergy: a complex disorder. J Am Coll Nutr December 2005 vol. 24 no. suppl 6 582S-591S.
  • Dewhurst RJ, Fisher WJ, Tweed JKS et al. Comparison of Grass and Legume Silages for Milk Production. 1. Production Responses with Different Levels of Concentrate. Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 86, Issue 8, August 2003, Pages 2598-2611.
  • Elgersma A, Ellen G, van der Horst H et al. Quick changes in milk fat composition from cows after transition from fresh grass to a silage diet. Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 117, Issues 1-2, 10 November 2004, Pages 13-27.
  • Hojer A, Adler S, Martinsson K et al. Effect of legume-grass silages and α-tocopherol supplementation on fatty acid composition and α-tocopherol, β-carotene and retinol concentrations in organically produced bovine milk. Livestock Science, Volume 148, Issue 3, October 2012, Pages 268-281.
  • Hojer A, Adler S, Purup S et al. Effects of feeding dairy cows different legume-grass silages on milk phytoestrogen concentration. J Dairy Sci. 2012 Aug;95(8):4526-40. doi: 10.3168/jds.2011-5226.
  • Lake IR, Foxall CD, Fernandes A et al. Seasonal variations in the levels of PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PBDEs in cows-milk. Chemosphere, Volume 90, Issue 1, January 2013, Pages 72-79.
  • Lerch Sm SHingfield KJ, Ferlay A et al. Rapeseed or linseed in grass-based diets: Effects on conjugated linoleic and conjugated linolenic acid isomers in milk fat from Holstein cows over 2 consecutive lactations. Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 95, Issue 12, December 2012, Pages 7269-7287.
  • Lock AL an Garnsworthy PC. Seasonal variation in milk conjugated linoleic acid and delta 9-desaturase activity in dairy cows. Livestock Production Science, Volume 79, Issue 1, January 2003, Pages 47-59.
  • Moorby JM, Lee MRF, Davies DR, et al. Assessment of dietary ratios of red clover and grass silages on milk production and milk quality in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 92, Issue 3, March 2009, Pages 1148-1160.
  • Noziere P, Grolier P, Durand D et al. Variations in Carotenoids, Fat-Soluble Micronutrients, and Color in Cows-Plasma and Milk Following Changes in Forage and Feeding Level. Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 89, Issue 7, July 2006, Pages 2634-2648.
  • O'Brien D, Shalloo L, Patton J et al. A life cycle assessment of seasonal grass-based and confinement dairy farms. Agricultural Systems, Volume 107, March 2012, Pages 33-46.
  • O'Driscoll K, Olmos G, Llamas Moya S et al. A reduction in milking frequency and feed allowance improves dairy cow immune status. J Dairy Sci. 2012 Mar;95(3):1177-87. doi: 10.3168/jds.2011-4408.
  • Patel M, Wredle E, and Bertilsson J. Effect of dietary proportion of grass silage on milk fat with emphasis on odd- and branched-chain fatty acids in dairy cows.
  • J Dairy Sci. 2012 Oct 10. doi:pii: S0022-0302(12)00754-0. 10.3168/jds.2012-5441. [Epub ahead of print].
  • Rego OA, Regalo SMM, Rosa HJD et al. Effects of Grass Silage and Soybean Meal Supplementation on Milk Production and Milk Fatty Acid Profiles of Grazing Dairy Cows. Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 91, Issue 7, July 2008, Pages 2736-2743.
  • Roggeman S, van den Brink N, Van Praet N et al. Metal exposure and accumulation patterns in free-range cows (Bos taurus) in a contaminated natural area: Influence of spatial and social behavior. Environmental Pollution, Volume 172, January 2013, Pages 186-199.
  • Soyeurt H, Dehareng F, Mayeres P et al. Variation of Delta 9-desaturase activity in dairy cattle. J Dairy Sci. 2008 Aug;91(8):3211-24. doi: 10.3168/jds.2007-0518.
  • Sterk A, Johansson BEO, Taweel HZ et al. Effects of forage type, forage to concentrate ratio, and crushed linseed supplementation on milk fatty acid profile in lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 94, Issue 12, December 2011, Pages 6078-6091.
  • Tempesta T and Vecchiato D. An analysis of the territorial factors affecting milk purchase in Italy. Food Quality and Preference, Volume 27, Issue 1, January 2013, Pages 35-43.
  • Zemel MB, Richards J, Milstead A et al. Effects of calcium and dairy on body composition and weight loss in African-American adults. Obes Res. 2005 Jul;13(7):1218-25.
  • Zemel MB, Thompson W, Milstead A et al. Calcium and dairy acceleration of weight and fat loss during energy restriction in obese adults. Obes Res. 2004 Apr;12(4):582-90.

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