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The George Mateljan Foundation is a not-for-profit foundation with no commercial interests or
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Each and every month at WHFoods, we rely on hundreds of research studies to keep you up-to-date on scientific information about food, nutrition, and health. (For more information about the role of science in our website content, please see Our Approach to Science Research). Among the featured sections of our website are 100 food profiles and 31 nutrient profiles. In terms of scientific review, we make these profiles one of our website priorities. In each of these profiles, you will find a dedicated References section that contains an alphabetized list of key scientific references involving that particular food or nutrient. In order to make all of these key food and nutrient research references available to you in a single place, we created this WHFoods Reference Library. You can use the radio buttons below to start with either Foods or Nutrients. Then simply choose the specific food or nutrient of interest, and click on it to obtain an alphabetized list of key research references.

Foods & Spices




Nuts & Seeds

Beans & Legumes

Poultry & Meats

Eggs & Dairy


Herbs & Spices

Green beans references

  • Baardseth P, Bjerke F, Martinsen BK et al. Vitamin C, total phenolics and antioxidative activity in tip-cut green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and swede rods (Brassica napus var. napobrassica) processed by methods used in catering. J Sci Food Agric. 2010 May;90(7):1245-55. 2010.
  • Bernad C, Philippon D, Garcia-Segovia P, et al. Optimizing the texture and color of sous-vide and cook-vide green bean pods. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 2013, 51, 2, pp. 507-513.
  • Bouchenak M and Lamri-Senhadji M. Nutritional quality of legumes, and their role in cardiometabolic risk prevention: a review. J Med Food. 2013 Mar;16(3):185-98. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2011.0238. Epub 2013 Feb 11.
  • Bouzari, A, Holstege D, and Barrett DM. Vitamin retention in eight fruits and vegetables: a comparison of refrigerated and frozen storage. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2015, 63, 3, pp. 957-962.
  • Danesi F and Bordoni A. Effect of home freezing and Italian style of cooking on antioxidant activity of edible vegetables. J Food Sci. 2008 Aug; 73(6):H109-12. 2008.
  • de Wild VW, de Graaf C, and Jager G. Use of Different Vegetable Products to Increase Preschool-Aged Children's Preference for and Intake of a Target Vegetable: A Randomized Controlled Trial. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2016 Dec 22. pii: S2212-2672(16)31397-1.
  • EL-Qudah JM. Identification and Quantification of Major Carotenoids in Some Vegetables. American Journal of Applied Sciences, 2009; 6(3):492-497. 2009.
  • Gimba JD, Daniel VN, Chundusu ES, et al. Effects of blanching time on anti oxidant (vitamin C) status in some fresh vegetables (carrot, cabbage, and green beans). Continental Journal of Food Science and Technology, 2012, 6, 1, pp 1-3.
  • Gonzalez S, Fernandez M, Cuervo A, et al. Dietary intake of polyphenols and major food sources in an institutionalised elderly population. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2014 Apr;27(2):176-83. doi: 10.1111/jhn.12058. Epub 2013 Mar 24.
  • Guillen S, Mir-Bel J, Oria R, et al. Influence of cooking conditions on organoleptic and health-related properties of artichokes, green beans, broccoli and carrots. Food Chemistry, 2017, 217, pp. 209-216.
  • Iborra-Bernad C, Garcia-Segovia P, and Martinez-Monzo J. Physico-chemical and structural characteristics of vegetables cooked under sous-vide, cook-vide, and conventional boiling. Journal of Food Science, 2015, 80, 8, pp. E1725-E1734.
  • Kahlon TS, Chiu MCM, and Chapman MH. Steam cooking significantly improves in vitro bile acid binding of beets, eggplant, asparagus, carrots, green beans, and cauliflower Original Research ArticleNutrition Research, Volume 27, Issue 12, December 2007, Pages 750-755.
  • Karas M, Jakubczyk A, Szymanowska U, et al. Antioxidant activity of protein hydrolysates from raw and heat-treated yellow string beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Acta Sci Pol Technol Aliment. 2014 Oct-Dec;13(4):385-391.
  • Oomah BD, Corb A and Balasubramanian P. Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Activities of Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Hulls. J. Agric. Food Chem., 2010, 58 (14), pp 8225-8230. 2010.
  • Price CT, Koval KJ, and Langford JR. Silicon: a review of its potential role in the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Int J Endocrinol. 2013;2013:316783. doi: 10.1155/2013/316783.
  • Ranilla LG, Genovese MI and Lajolo FM. Effect of different cooking conditions on phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of some selected Brazilian bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars. J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Jul 8; 57(13):5734-42. 2009.
  • Rickman JC, Barrett DM and Bruhn CM. Nutritional comparison of fresh, frozen and canned fruits and vegetables. Part 1. Vitamins C and B and phenolic compounds. J Sci Food Agric 87:930-944 (2007). 2007.
  • Ruiz-Ojeda LM and Penas FJ. Comparison study of conventional hot-water and microwave blanching on quality of green beans. Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, 2013, 20, pp. 191-197.
  • Sripanyakorn S, Jugdaohsingh R, Dissayabutr W et al. The comparative absorption of silicon from different foods and food supplements. The British Journal of Nutrition. Cambridge: Sep 28, 2009. Vol. 102, Iss. 6; pg. 825-834. 2009.

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