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The George Mateljan Foundation is a not-for-profit foundation with no commercial interests or
advertising. Our mission is to help you eat and cook the healthiest way for optimal health.
Each and every month at WHFoods, we rely on hundreds of research studies to keep you up-to-date on scientific information about food, nutrition, and health. (For more information about the role of science in our website content, please see Our Approach to Science Research). Among the featured sections of our website are 100 food profiles and 31 nutrient profiles. In terms of scientific review, we make these profiles one of our website priorities. In each of these profiles, you will find a dedicated References section that contains an alphabetized list of key scientific references involving that particular food or nutrient. In order to make all of these key food and nutrient research references available to you in a single place, we created this WHFoods Reference Library. You can use the radio buttons below to start with either Foods or Nutrients. Then simply choose the specific food or nutrient of interest, and click on it to obtain an alphabetized list of key research references.

Foods & Spices




Nuts & Seeds

Beans & Legumes

Poultry & Meats

Eggs & Dairy


Herbs & Spices

Beef, grass-fed references

  • Ajmone-Marsan P, Garcia JF, and Lenstra JA. 2010. On the origin of cattle: How aurochs became cattle and colonized the world. Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews 19(4):148-157.
  • Beauchemin KA, Janzen HH, Little SM et al. Mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from beef production in western Canada — Evaluation using farm-based life cycle assessment. Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volumes 166-167, 23 June 2011, Pages 663-677.
  • Crosson P, Shalloo L, O'Brien D et al. A review of whole farm systems models of greenhouse gas emissions from beef and dairy cattle production systems. Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volumes 166-167, 23 June 2011, Pages 29-45.
  • Descalzo AM, Rossetti L, Grigioni G et al. Antioxidant status and odour profile in fresh beef from pasture or grain-fed cattle. Meat Science, Volume 75, Issue 2, February 2007, Pages 299-307.
  • Dilzer A and Park Y. Implication of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in human health. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2012;52(6):488-513.
  • Driskell JA, Kim YN, Giraud DW et al. Vitamin and mineral content of value cuts from beef steers fed distiller's grains. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, Volume 24, Issue 3, May 2011, Pages 362-367
  • Elmore JS, Warren HE, Mottram DS et al. A comparison of the aroma volatiles and fatty acid compositions of grilled beef muscle from Aberdeen Angus and Holstein-Friesian steers fed diets based on silage or concentrates. Meat Science, Volume 68, Issue 1, September 2004, Pages 27-33.
  • French P, O'Riordan EG, Monahan FJ et al. Fatty acid composition of intra-muscular triacylglycerols of steers fed autumn grass and concentrates. Livestock Production Science, Volume 81, Issues 2-3, June 2003, Pages 307-317.
  • Jiang T, Busboom JR, Nelson ML et al. The influence of forage diets and aging on beef palatability. Meat Science, Volume 86, Issue 3, November 2010, Pages 642-650.
  • Jiang T, Mueller CJ, Busboom, JR et al. Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue and muscle from Jersey steers was affected by finishing diet and tissue location. Meat Science, Volume 93, Issue 2, February 2013, Pages 153-161.
  • Korhonen M, Vanhatalo A, and Huhtanen P. Effect of Protein Source on Amino Acid Supply, Milk Production, and Metabolism of Plasma Nutrients in Dairy Cows Fed Grass Silage. Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 85, Issue 12, December 2002, Pages 3336-3351.
  • Lorenzen CL, Golden JW, Martz FA et al,. Conjugated linoleic acid content of beef differs by feeding regime and muscle. Meat Science, Volume 75, Issue 1, January 2007, Pages 159-167.
  • Maughan C, Tansawat R, Cornforth D et al. Development of a beef flavor lexicon and its application to compare the flavor profile and consumer acceptance of rib steaks from grass- or grain-fed cattle. Meat Science, Volume 90, Issue 1, January 2012, Pages 116-121.
  • Muchenje V, Dzama K, Chimonyo M et al. Some biochemical aspects pertaining to beef eating quality and consumer health: A review. Food Chemistry, Volume 112, Issue 2, 15 January 2009, Pages 279-289.
  • Napolitano F, Braghieri A, Piasentier E et al. Effect of information about organic production on beef liking and consumer willingness to pay. Food Quality and Preference, Volume 21, Issue 2, March 2010, Pages 207-212.
  • Nielsen BK and Kristensen AR. Optimal decisions in organic beef production from steers — Effects of criterion of optimality and price changes. Livestock Science, Volume 110, Issues 1-2, June 2007, Pages 25-32.
  • Nielsen BK and Thamsborg SM. Welfare, health and product quality in organic beef production: a Danish perspective. Livestock Production Science, Volume 94, Issues 1-2, June 2005, Pages 41-50.
  • O'Neill CE, Zanovec M, Keast DR et al. Nutrient contribution of total and lean beef in diets of US children and adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004. Meat Science, Volume 87, Issue 3, March 2011, Pages 250-256.
  • Pavan E and Duckett SK. Fatty acid composition and interrelationships among eight retail cuts of grass-feed beef. Meat Science, Volume 93, Issue 3, March 2013, Pages 371-377.
  • Poulson CS, Dhiman TR, Cornforth D et al. Conjugated linoleic acid content of beef from cattle fed diets containing high grain, CLA, or raised on forage. Livestock Production Science, Volume 91, Issues 1-2, 1 December 2004, Pages 117-128.
  • Purchas RW and Busboom JR. The effect of production system and age on levels of iron, taurine, carnosine, coenzyme Q10, and creatine in beef muscles and liver. Meat Science, Volume 70, Issue 4, August 2005, Pages 589-596.
  • Purchas R, Zou M, Pearce P et al. Concentrations of vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in raw and cooked New Zealand beef and lamb. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, Volume 20, Issue 2, March 2007, Pages 90-98.
  • Roggeman S, van den Brink N, Van Praet N et al. Metal exposure and accumulation patterns in free-range cows (Bos taurus) in a contaminated natural area: Influence of spatial and social behavior. Environmental Pollution, Volume 172, January 2013, Pages 186-199.
  • Rohrle FT, Moloney AP, Osorio MT et al. Carotenoid, colour and reflectance measurements in bovine adipose tissue to discriminate between beef from different feeding systems. Meat Science, Volume 88, Issue 3, July 2011, Pages 347-353.
  • Schor A, Cossu ME, Picallo A et al. Nutritional and eating quality of Argentinean beef: A review. Meat Science, Volume 79, Issue 3, July 2008, Pages 408-422.
  • Smith BA, Fazil A and Lammerding AM. A risk assessment model for Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef and beef cuts in Canada: Evaluating the effects of interventions. Food Control, Volume 29, Issue 2, February 2013, Pages 364-381.
  • Warren HE, Schollan NC, Enser M et al. Effects of breed and a concentrate or grass silage diet on beef quality in cattle of 3 ages. I: Animal performance, carcass quality and muscle fatty acid composition. Meat Science, Volume 78, Issue 3, March 2008, Pages 256-269.
  • van Wijlen RPJ and Colombani PC. Grass-based ruminant production methods and human bioconversion of vaccenic acid with estimations of maximal dietary intake of conjugated linoleic acids. International Dairy Journal, Volume 20, Issue 7, July 2010, Pages 433-448.
  • Wismer WV, Okine EK, Stein A et al. Physical and sensory characterization and consumer preference of corn and barley-fed beef. Meat Science, Volume 80, Issue 3, November 2008, Pages 857-863.
  • Xue H, Manville D, You W et al. Consumer preferences and willingness to pay for grass-fed beef: Empirical evidence from in-store experiments. Food Quality and Preference, Volume 21, Issue 7, October 2010, Pages 857-866.

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