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Each and every month at WHFoods, we rely on hundreds of research studies to keep you up-to-date on scientific information about food, nutrition, and health. (For more information about the role of science in our website content, please see Our Approach to Science Research). Among the featured sections of our website are 100 food profiles and 31 nutrient profiles. In terms of scientific review, we make these profiles one of our website priorities. In each of these profiles, you will find a dedicated References section that contains an alphabetized list of key scientific references involving that particular food or nutrient. In order to make all of these key food and nutrient research references available to you in a single place, we created this WHFoods Reference Library. You can use the radio buttons below to start with either Foods or Nutrients. Then simply choose the specific food or nutrient of interest, and click on it to obtain an alphabetized list of key research references.

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Apples references

  • Auclair S, Chironi G, Milenkovic D et al. The regular consumption of a polyphenol-rich apple does not influence endothelial function: a randomised double-blind trial in hypercholesterolemic adults. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010 Aug 4. [Epub ahead of print]. 2010.
  • Barbosa AC, Pinto MD, Sarkar D et al. Varietal Influences on Antihyperglycemia Properties of Freshly Harvested Apples Using In Vitro Assay Models. J Med Food. 2010 Sep 27. [Epub ahead of print]. 2010.
  • Candrawinata VI, Blades BL, Golding JB, et al. Effect of clarification on the polyphenolic compound content and antioxidant activity of commercial apple juices. International Food Research Journal, 2012, 19, 3, pp. 1055-1061.
  • Carrasco-Pozo C, Gotteland M and Speisky H. Protection by apple peel polyphenols against indometacin-induced oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage and cytotoxicity in Caco-2 cells. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2010 Jul;62(7):943-50. 2010.
  • Condezo-Hoyos L, Mohanty IP, and Noratto GD. Assessing non-digestible compounds in apple cultivars and their potential as modulators of obese faecal microbiota in vitro. Food Chemistry, Volume 161, 15 October 2014, pages 208-215.
  • Cornille A, Gladieux P, Smulders MJM, et al. (2012). New Insight into the History of Domesticated Apple: Secondary Contribution of the European Wild Apple to the Genome of Cultivated Varieties. PLoS Genet8(5): e1002703.
  • Crowe KM and Murray E. Deconstructing a Fruit Serving: Comparing the Antioxidant Density of Select Whole Fruit and 100% Fruit Juices. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Volume 113, Issue 10, October 2013, pages 1354-1358.
  • Guo XF, Yang B, Tang J, et al. Apple and pear consumption and type 2 diabetes mellitus risk: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Food Funct. 2017 Mar 22;8(3):927-934.
  • Hanhineva K, Törrönen R, Bondia-Pons I et al. Impact of Dietary Polyphenols on Carbohydrate Metabolism. Int J Mol Sci. 2010; 11(4): 1365-1402. 2010.
  • Holderbaum DF, Kon T, Kudo T et al. Enzymatic Browning, Polyphenol Oxidase Activity, and Polyphenols in Four Apple Cultivars: Dynamics during Fruit Development. HortScience, Aug 2010; 45: 1150 - 1154. 2010.
  • Jaganathan SK, Vellayappan MV, Narasimhan G, et al. Chemopreventive effect of apple and berry fruits against colon cancer. orld J Gastroenterol. 2014 Dec 7;20(45):17029-36.
  • Koutsos A, Lima M, Coterno L, et al. Effects of Commercial Apple Varieties on Human Gut Microbiota Composition and Metabolic Output Using an In Vitro Colonic Model./ Nutrients. 2017 Jun; 9(6): 533.
  • Koutsos A, Tuohy KM, and Lovegrove JA. Apples and cardiovascular health--is the gut microbiota a core consideration? Nutrients. 2015 May 26;7(6):3959-98.
  • Kovac, A, Skendrovic Babojelic, M, Pavicic, N et al. Influence of harvest time and storage duration on "Cripps Pink" apple cultivar (Malus x domestica Borkh) quality parameters. Ciencia y Tecnolog—a Alimentaria, Vol. 8, N—m. 1, mayo, 2010, pp. 1-6. 2010.
  • Liaudanskas M, Viskelis P, and Janulis V. Polyphenolic compounds in apples - chemical composition, structure, biological activity (review). Sodininkyste ir Darzininkyste, 2012, 31, 1/2, pp. 3-17.
  • Licht TR, Hansen M, Bergström A et al. Effects of apples and specific apple components on the cecal environment of conventional rats: role of apple pectin. Microbiol. 2010; 10: 13. Published online 2010 January 20. doi: 10.1186/1471-2180-10-13. 2010.
  • Luminita, P. Apples total antioxidant capacity, water and mineral content. Journal of Horticulture, Forestry and Biotechnology, 2015, 19, 4, pp. 13-16.
  • Mangels DR and Mohler ER 3rd. Catechins as Potential Mediators of Cardiovascular Health. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2017 May;37(5):757-763.
  • O'Neil CE, Nicklas TA, and Fulgoni VL 3rd. Consumption of apples is associated with a better diet quality and reduced risk of obesity in children: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2010. Nutr J. 2015 May 14;14:48.
  • Park YS, Im MH, Ham KS, et al. Quantitative assessment of the main antioxidant compounds, antioxidant activities and FTIR spectra from commonly consumed fruits, compared to standard kiwi fruit. LWT - Food Science and Technology, Volume 63, Issue 1, September 2015, pages 346-352.
  • Raudone L, Raudonis R, Liaudanskas M, et al. Phenolic Profiles and Contribution of Individual Compounds to Antioxidant Activity of Apple Powders. J Food Sci. 2016 May;81(5):C1055-61.
  • Sampath C, Rashid MR, Sang S, et al. Specific bioactive compounds in ginger and apple alleviate hyperglycemia in mice with high fat diet-induced obesity via Nrf2 mediated pathway. Food Chemistry, Volume 226, 1 July 2017, pages 79-88.
  • Serra AT, Rocha J, Sepodes B, et al. Evaluation of cardiovascular protective effect of different apple varieties — Correlation of response with composition. Food Chemistry, Volume 135, Issue 4, 15 December 2012, pages 2378-2386.
  • Setorki M, Asgary S, Eidi A et al. Effects of apple juice on risk factors of lipid profile, inflammation and coagulation, endothelial markers and atherosclerotic lesions in high cholesterolemic rabbits. Lipids Health Dis. 2009; 8: 39. 2009.
  • Shoji T and Muira T. Chapter 104 - Apple Polyphenols in Cancer Prevention. Polyphenols in Human Health and Disease, Volume 2, 2014, pages 1373-1383.
  • Volstatova T, Marsik P, Rada V, et al. Effect of apple extracts and selective polyphenols on the adhesion of potential probiotic strains of Lactobacillus gasseri R and Lactobacillus casei. Journal of Functional Foods, Volume 35, August 2017, pages 391-397.
  • Wang S, Li Q, Zang Y, et al. Apple polysaccharide inhibits microbial dysbiosis and chronic inflammation and modulates gut permeability in HFD-fed rats. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 99, June 2017, pages 282-292.
  • Zardo DM, Silva KM, Guyot S, et al. Phenolic profile and antioxidant capacity of the principal apples produced in Brazil. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2013 Aug;64(5):611-20. doi: 10.3109/09637486.2013.763909. Epub 2013 Jan 29.

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