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Introducing our New World's Healthiest Foods Menu! You can get 100% of nutrients from the WHFoods.

The George Mateljan Foundation is a not-for-profit foundation with no commercial interests or
advertising. Our mission is to help you eat and cook the healthiest way for optimal health.
Each and every month at WHFoods, we rely on hundreds of research studies to keep you up-to-date on scientific information about food, nutrition, and health. (For more information about the role of science in our website content, please see Our Approach to Science Research). Among the featured sections of our website are 100 food profiles and 31 nutrient profiles. In terms of scientific review, we make these profiles one of our website priorities. In each of these profiles, you will find a dedicated References section that contains an alphabetized list of key scientific references involving that particular food or nutrient. In order to make all of these key food and nutrient research references available to you in a single place, we created this WHFoods Reference Library. You can use the radio buttons below to start with either Foods or Nutrients. Then simply choose the specific food or nutrient of interest, and click on it to obtain an alphabetized list of key research references.

Foods & Spices




Nuts & Seeds

Beans & Legumes

Poultry & Meats

Eggs & Dairy


Herbs & Spices

Pears references

  • Aguedo M, Kohne S, Rabetafika N et al. Composition of by-products from cooked fruit processing and potential use in food products. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, Volume 27, Issue 1, August 2012, Pages 61-69.
  • Buchner FL, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Ros MM et al. Consumption of vegetables and fruit and the risk of bladder cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Int J Cancer. 2009 Dec 1;125(11):2643-51.
  • Chen J, Wang Z, Wu J et al. Chemical compositional characterization of eight pear cultivars grown in China. Food Chemistry, Volume 104, Issue 1, 2007, Pages 268-275.
  • Colaric M, Stampar F and Hudina M. Content levels of various fruit metabolites in the "Conference" pear response to branch bending. Scientia Horticulturae, Volume 113, Issue 3, 20 July 2007, Pages 261-266.
  • Freedman ND, Park Y, Subar AF et al. Fruit and vegetable intake and esophageal cancer in a large prospective cohort study. Int J Cancer. 2007 Dec 15;121(12):2753-60.
  • Hernandez-Ramirez RU, Galvan-Portillo MV, Ward MH et al. Dietary intake of polyphenols, nitrate and nitrite and gastric cancer risk in Mexico City. Int J Cancer. 2009 Sep 15;125(6):1424-30.
  • Kahlon TS and Smith GE. In vitro binding of bile acids by bananas, peaches, pineapple, grapes, pears, apricots and nectarines. Food Chemistry, Volume 101, Issue 3, 2007, Pages 1046-1051.
  • Li P and Cheng L. The elevated anthocyanin level in the shaded peel of "Anjou" pear enhances its tolerance to high temperature under high light. Plant Science, Volume 177, Issue 5, November 2009, Pages 418-426.
  • Linseisen J, Rohrmann S, Miller AB et al. Fruit and vegetable consumption and lung cancer risk: updated information from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Int J Cancer. 2007 Sep 1;121(5):1103-14.
  • Maras JE, Talegawkar SA, Qiao N et al. Flavonoid intakes in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, Volume 24, Issue 8, December 2011, Pages 1103-1109.
  • Muchuweti M and Chikwambi Z. Isolation and Identification of Anthocyanins in the Fruit Peels of Starkrimson and Marx Red Bartlett Common Pear Cultivars and Their Bud Mutants. American Journal of Food Technology Year: 2008 Vol: 3 Issue: 1 Pages/record No.: 1-12.
  • Predieri S and Gatti E. Effects of cold storage and shelf-life on sensory quality and consumer acceptance of "Abate Fetel" pears. Postharvest Biology and Technology, Volume 51, Issue 3, March 2009, Pages 342-348.
  • Salta J, Martins A, Santos RG et al. Phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of Rocha pear and other pear cultivars - A comparative study. Journal of Functional Foods, Volume 2, Issue 2, April 2010, Pages 153-157.
  • Tanrioven D and Eksi A. Phenolic compounds in pear juice from different cultivars. Food Chemistry, Volume 93, Issue 1, November 2005, Pages 89-93.
  • Wedick NM, Pan A, Cassidy A et al. Dietary flavonoid intakes and risk of type 2 diabetes in US men and women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Apr;95(4):925-33. Epub 2012 Feb 22.
  • Yazdani N, Arzani K, Mostofi Y et al. α-Farnesene and antioxidative enzyme systems in Asian pear (Pyrus serotina Rehd.) fruit. Postharvest Biology and Technology, Volume 59, Issue 3, March 2011, Pages 227-231.

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