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The George Mateljan Foundation is a not-for-profit foundation with no commercial interests or
advertising. Our mission is to help you eat and cook the healthiest way for optimal health.
Each and every month at WHFoods, we rely on hundreds of research studies to keep you up-to-date on scientific information about food, nutrition, and health. (For more information about the role of science in our website content, please see Our Approach to Science Research). Among the featured sections of our website are 100 food profiles and 31 nutrient profiles. In terms of scientific review, we make these profiles one of our website priorities. In each of these profiles, you will find a dedicated References section that contains an alphabetized list of key scientific references involving that particular food or nutrient. In order to make all of these key food and nutrient research references available to you in a single place, we created this WHFoods Reference Library. You can use the radio buttons below to start with either Foods or Nutrients. Then simply choose the specific food or nutrient of interest, and click on it to obtain an alphabetized list of key research references.

Foods & Spices




Nuts & Seeds

Beans & Legumes

Poultry & Meats

Eggs & Dairy


Herbs & Spices

Eggs, pasture-raised references

  • Andersen CJ, Blesso CN, Lee J, et al. Egg Consumption Modulates HDL Lipid Composition and Increases the Cholesterol-Accepting Capacity of Serum in Metabolic Syndrome. Lipids. 2013 Mar 15. [Epub ahead of print]
  • Aune D, De Stefani E, Ronco AL, et al. Egg consumption and the risk of cancer: a multisite case-control study in Uruguay. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2009;10(5):869-76.
  • Bao PP, Shu XO, Zheng Y, et al. Fruit, vegetable, and animal food intake and breast cancer risk by hormone receptor status. Nutr Cancer. 2012 Aug;64(6):806-19. doi: 10.1080/01635581.2012.707277.
  • Bruneel C, Lemahieu C, Fraeye I, et al. Impact of microalgal feed supplementation on omega-3 fatty acid enrichment of hen eggs. Journal of Functional Foods, In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 5 March 2013.
  • Burbaugh D, Toro E, and Gernat A. Introduction to pasture-raised poultry: maximizing foraging behavior. (2006). Document Number AN237. University of Florida, IFAS Extension, Gainsville, FL.
  • Caubet JC, Bencharitiwong R, Moshier E, et al. Significance of ovomucoid- and ovalbumin-specific IgE/IgG4 ratios in egg allergy. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Volume 129, Issue 3, March 2012, Pages 739-747.
  • Cornucopia Institute. (2010). Scrambled Eggs: Separating Factory Farm Egg
  • Production from Authentic Organic Agriculture. A Report and Scorecard by The Cornucopia Institute. Cornucopia, WI.
  • Djousse L and Gaziano JM. Egg consumption in relation to cardiovascular disease and mortality: the Physicians' Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Apr;87(4):964-9.
  • Egg Products Inspection Act (EPIA). (1970). 21 USC Section 1032 (112-190), Title 21, Chapter 15. Congressional Record, pages 577-589.
  • Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS). Shell eggs from farm to table. U.S. Department of Agriculture, April 2011.
  • Fraeye I, Bruneel C, Lemahieu C, et al. Dietary enrichment of eggs with omega-3 fatty acids: A review. Food Research International, Volume 48, Issue 2, October 2012, Pages 961-969.
  • Gast R and Guard J. Controlling egg contamination with salmonella enteritidis by understanding its pathobiology. Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. XXII Latin American Poultry Congress 2011.
  • Gast RK, Guraya R, Guard J, et al. Multiplication of Salmonella enteritidis in egg yolks after inoculation outside, on, and inside vitelline membranes and storage at different temperatures. J Food Prot. 2010 Oct;73(10):1902-6.
  • Giannenas I, Nisianakis P, Gavriil A, et al. Trace mineral content of conventional, organic and courtyard eggs analysed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Food Chemistry, Volume 114, Issue 2, 15 May 2009, Pages 706-711.
  • Heckman J. Chicken Tractoring on the Home Turf. Proceedings of the Seventeenth Annual Rutgers Turfgrass Symposium. January 10-11, 2008. The Center for Turfgrass Science, Rutgers University.
  • Hegde MV, Zanwar AA, Khan SA, et al. Omega-3 fatty acid enriched eggs are heart friendly. Atherosclerosis Supplements, Volume 12, Issue 1, June 2011, Page 148.
  • Heron KL, Vega-Lopez S, Conde K, et al. Men Classified as Hypo- or Hyperresponders to Dietary Cholesterol Feeding Exhibit Differences in Lipoprotein Metabolism J. Nutr. April 1, 2003 vol. 133 no. 4 1036-1042.
  • Horsted K, Hammershoj M, and Allesen-Holm BH.Effect of grass-clover forage and whole-wheat feeding on the sensory quality of eggs. J Sci Food Agric. 2010 Jan 30;90(2):343-8. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.3825.
  • Jones DR, Anderson KE, and Guard JY. 2012. Prevalence of coliforms, Salmonella, Listeria, and Campylobacter associated with eggs and the environment of conventional cage and free-range egg production. Poult. Sci., 91(5):1195-1202. doi: 10.3382/ps.2011-01795.
  • Karstena HD, Pattersona PH, Stouta R, et al. Vitamins A, E and fatty acid composition of the eggs of caged hens and pastured hens. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems, Volume 25, Special Issue 01, March 2010, pp 45-54.
  • Kassis NM, Beamer SK, Matak KE, et al. Nutritional composition of novel nutraceutical egg products developed with omega-3-rich oils LWT - Food Science and Technology, Volume 43, Issue 8, October 2010, Pages 1204-1212.
  • Konstantinou GN and Kim JS. Paradigm Shift in the Management of Milk and Egg Allergy: Baked Milk and Egg Diet. Review. Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America, Volume 32, Issue 1, February 2012, Pages 151-164.
  • Lambton SL, Knowles TG, Yorke C, et al. The risk factors affecting the development of gentle and severe feather pecking in loose housed laying hens. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, Volume 123, Issues 1—2, February 2010, Pages 32-42.
  • Latimer HK, Marks HM, Coleman ME, et al. Evaluating the effectiveness of pasteurization for reducing human illnesses from Salmonella spp. in egg products: results of a quantitative risk assessment. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2008 Feb;5(1):59-68. doi: 10.1089/fpd.2007.0041.
  • Leonard SA, Sampson HA, Sicherer SH, et al. Dietary baked egg accelerates resolution of egg allergy in children. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Volume 130, Issue 2, August 2012, Pages 473-480.e1
  • Lopez-Bote CJ, Arias RS, Rey AI, et al. Effect of free-range feeding on ω3 fatty acid and α-tocopherol content and oxidative stability of eggs. Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 72, Issues 1-2, May 1998, Pages 33-40.
  • Martos G, Lopez-Exposito I, Bencharitiwong R, et al. Mechanisms underlying differential food allergy response to heated egg. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Volume 127, Issue 4, April 2011, Pages 990-997.e2
  • Mazurek J, Holbert L, Parrish MK, et al. Raw eggs - lessons learned from an outbreak of Salmonella serotype enteritidis infections associated with meringue pie. J Public Health Manag Pract. 2005 May-Jun;11(3):201-7.
  • Mine Y and Roy MK. Egg Components for Heart Health: Promise and Progress for Cardiovascular Protective Functional Food Ingredient Comprehensive Biotechnology (Second Edition), Volume 4, 2011, Pages 553-565.
  • Rawn DFK, Sadler AR, Quade SC, et al. The impact of production type and region on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) concentrations in Canadian chicken egg yolks. Chemosphere, Volume 89, Issue 8, November 2012, Pages 929-935.
  • Reu KD, Messens W, Heyndrickx M, et al. Bacterial contamination of table eggs and the influence of housing systems. World's Poultry Science Journal 2008, Vol. 64, pages 5-19.
  • Rong Y, Chen L, Zhu T, et al. Egg consumption and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke: dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.
  • BMJ. 2013 Jan 7;346:e8539. doi: 10.1136/bmj.e8539.
  • Salhei E. Raw eggs--lessons learned from an outbreak of Salmonella serotype enteritidis infections associated with meringue pie. J Public Health Manag Pract. 2005 May-Jun;11(3):201-7.
  • Samman S, Kung FP, Carter LM, et al. Fatty acid composition of certified organic, conventional and omega-3 eggs. Food Chemistry, Volume 116, Issue 4, 15 October 2009, Pages 911-914.
  • Savage JH, Matsui EC, Skripak JM, at el. The natural history of egg allergy. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Volume 120, Issue 6, December 2007, Pages 1413-1417.
  • Schroeder CM, Latimer HK, Schlosser WD, et al. Overview and summary of the Food Safety and Inspection Service risk assessment for Salmonella enteritidis in shell eggs, October 2005. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2006 Winter;3(4):403-12.
  • Seo KH, Holt PS, Stone HD, et al. Simple and rapid methods for detecting Salmonella enteritidis in raw eggs. International Journal of Food Microbiology, Volume 87, Issues 1—2, 15 October 2003, Pages 139-144.
  • Sinanoglou VJ, Strati IF, and Miniadis-Meimaroglou S. Lipid, fatty acid and carotenoid content of edible egg yolks from avian species: A comparative study. Food Chemistry, Volume 124, Issue 3, 1 February 2011, Pages 971-977.
  • Sindelar CA, Scheerger SB, Plugge SL, et al. Serum lipids of physically active adults consuming omega-3 fatty acid—enriched eggs or conventional eggs. Nutrition Research, Volume 24, Issue 9, September 2004, Pages 731-739.
  • U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (FDA). Environmental Sampling and Detection of Salmonella in Poultry Houses. Silver Spring, MD. October 2008.
  • USDA Food Search for Windows, Version 1, Database Version SR 25. (2012). Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL), Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center (BHNC), Agricultural Research Service (ARS), U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA).
  • Wirfalt E, Li C, Manjer J, et al. Food sources of fat and sex hormone receptor status of invasive breast tumors in women of the Malmo Diet and Cancer cohort. Nutr Cancer. 2011;63(5):722-33. doi: 10.1080/01635581.2011.570897. Epub 2011 Jun 22.
  • Woods VB and Fearon AM. Dietary sources of unsaturated fatty acids for animals and their transfer into meat, milk and eggs: A review. Livestock Science, Volume 126, Issues 1—3, December 2009, Pages 1-20.
  • Zhang J, Zhao Z, and Berkel HJ. Egg consumption and mortality from colon and rectal cancers: an ecological study. Nutr Cancer. 2003;46(2):158-65.

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