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Chili pepper, dried
Chili pepper, dried

About Chili Pepper

Chili peppers are available throughout the year to add zest to flavorful dishes around the world and health to those brave enough to risk their fiery heat.

This is the plant that puts fire on your tongue and maybe even a tear in your eye when you eat spicy Mexican, simmering Szechuan, smoldering Indian, or torrid Thai food. Chili peppers belong to the family of foods bearing the Latin name Capsicum.

Chili Peppers, hot, dried
2.00 tsp
(5.40 grams)
Calories: 15
GI: very low

NutrientDRI/DV



 fiber8%


 copper6%


 iron5%






This chart graphically details the %DV that a serving of Chili pepper, dried provides for each of the nutrients of which it is a good, very good, or excellent source according to our Food Rating System. Additional information about the amount of these nutrients provided by Chili pepper, dried can be found in the Food Rating System Chart. A link that takes you to the In-Depth Nutritional Profile for Chili pepper, dried, featuring information over 80 nutrients, can be found under the Food Rating System Chart.

Health Benefits

Fight Inflammation

Chili peppers contain a substance called capsaicin, which gives peppers their characteristic pungence, producing mild to intense spice when eaten. Capsaicin is a potent inhibitor of substance P, a neuropeptide associated with inflammatory processes. The hotter the chili pepper, the more capsaicin it contains. The hottest varieties include habanero and Scotch bonnet peppers. Jalapenos are next in their heat and capsaicin content, followed by the milder varieties, including Spanish pimentos, and Anaheim and Hungarian cherry peppers.

Capsaicin is being studied as an effective treatment for sensory nerve fiber disorders, including pain associated with arthritis, psoriasis, and diabetic neuropathy. When animals injected with a substance that causes inflammatory arthritis were fed a diet that contained capsaicin, they had delayed onset of arthritis, and also significantly reduced paw inflammation.

Natural Pain Relief

Topical capsaicin is now a recognized treatment option for osteoarthritis pain. Several review studies of pain management for diabetic neuropathy have listed the benefits of topical capsaicin to alleviate disabling pain associated with this condition.

In a double-blind placebo controlled trial, nearly 200 patients with psoriasis were given topical preparations containing either capsaicin or placebo. Patients who were given capsaicin reported significant improvement based on a severity score which traced symptoms associated with psoriasis. The side effect reported with topical capsaicin cream is a burning sensation at the area of application.

Cardiovascular Benefits

Red chili peppers, such as cayenne, have been shown to reduce blood cholesterol, triglyceride levels, and platelet aggregation, while increasing the body's ability to dissolve fibrin, a substance integral to the formation of blood clots. Cultures where hot pepper is used liberally have a much lower rate of heart attack, stroke and pulmonary embolism.

Spicing your meals with chili peppers may also protect the fats in your blood from damage by free radicals - a first step in the development of atherosclerosis. In a randomized, crossover study involving 27 healthy subjects (14 women, 13 men), eating freshly chopped chili was found to increase the resistance of blood fats, such as cholesterol and triglycerides, to oxidation (free radical injury).

Subjects were randomly divided into 2 groups. For 4 weeks, half the subjects ate a freshly chopped chili blend (30 grams/day, about 1 ounce), consisting of 55% cayenne, while the other half consumed a bland diet (no chili). After 4 weeks, the groups were crossed over for another 4 weeks. During the intervention periods, consumption of other spices such as cinnamon, ginger, garlic, and mustard was restricted. Blood samples were obtained at the beginning of the study and after each dietary period.

After eating the chili-containing diet, the rate of oxidation (free radical damage to cholesterol and triglycerides) was significantly lower in both men and women than that seen after eating the bland diet.

In addition, after eating the chili-spiced diet, women had a longer lag time before any damage to cholesterol was seen compared to the lag time seen after eating the bland diet. In men, the chili-diet also lowered resting heart rate and increased the amount of blood reaching the heart.

Clear Congestion

Capsaicin not only reduces pain, but its peppery heat also stimulates secretions that help clear mucus from your stuffed up nose or congested lungs.

Boost Immunity

The bright color of red chili peppers signals its high content of beta-carotene or pro-vitamin A. Just two teaspoons of red chili peppers provide about 6% of the daily value for vitamin C coupled with more than 10% of the daily value for vitamin A. Often called the anti-infection vitamin, vitamin A is essential for healthy mucous membranes, which line the nasal passages, lungs, intestinal tract and urinary tract and serve as the body's first line of defense against invading pathogens.

Help Stop the Spread of Prostate Cancer

Red chili peppers' capsaicin, the compound responsible for their pungent heat, stops the spread of prostate cancer cells through a variety of mechanisms, indicates a study published in the March 15, 2006 issue of Cancer Research . Capsaicin triggers suicide in both primary types of prostate cancer cell lines, those whose growth is stimulated by male hormones and those not affected by them. In addition, capsaicin lessens the expression of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), inhibits the ability of the most potent form of testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, to activate PSA, and directly inhibits PSA transcription, causing PSA levels to plummet.

The dose effective for test animals was equivalent to 400 milligrams of capsaicin, three times a week, for a man weighing about 200 pounds. After four weeks of receiving capsaicin, prostate cancer tumor growth and size decreased significantly in the animals. One warning: Excessive intake of hot chilies has been linked to stomach cancer, so don't go overboard.

Prevent Stomach Ulcers

Chili peppers have a bad—and mistaken—reputation for contributing to stomach ulcers. Not only do they not cause ulcers, they can help prevent them by killing bacteria you may have ingested, while stimulating the cells lining the stomach to secrete protective buffering juices.

Lose Weight

All that heat you feel after eating hot chili peppers takes energy—and calories to produce. Even sweet red peppers have been found to contain substances that significantly increase thermogenesis (heat production) and oxygen consumption for more than 20 minutes after they are eaten.

Lower Risk of Type 2 Diabetes

Making chili pepper a frequently enjoyed spice in your Healthiest Way of Eating could help reduce your risk of hyperinsulinemia (high blood levels of insulin)—a disorder associated with type 2 diabetes.

In a study published in the July 2006 issue of the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Australian researchers show that the amount of insulin required to lower blood sugar after a meal is reduced if the meal contains chili pepper. When chili-containing meals are a regular part of the diet, insulin requirements drop even lower.

Plus, chili's beneficial effects on insulin needs get even better as body mass index (BMI, a measure of obesity) increases. In overweight people, not only do chili-containing meals significantly lower the amount of insulin required to lower blood sugar levels after a meal, but chili-containing meals also result in a lower ratio of C-peptide/ insulin, an indication that the rate at which the liver is clearing insulin has increased.

The amount of C-peptide in the blood also shows how much insulin is being produced by the pancreas. The pancreas produces proinsulin, which splits into insulin and C-peptide when secreted into the bloodstream. Each molecule of proinsulin breaks into one molecule of C-peptide and one molecule of insulin, so less C-peptide means less insulin has been secreted into the bloodstream.

In this study, which involved 36 subjects aged 22-70 years, the effects of three interventions were evaluated. Subjects were given a bland meal after a bland diet containing no spices, a chili-containing meal after a bland diet, and finally, a chili-containing meal after a chili-containing diet. A palatable chili flavoring, not pure capsaicin (the active component in chili), was used.

Blood sugar rose similarly after all three interventions, but insulin rose the most after the bland meal after a bland diet and the least after the chili-containing meal after a chili-rich diet.

The maximum increases in insulin after the bland diet followed by a chili-containing meal were 15% lower than after the bland meal following a bland diet, and 24% lower after the chili-containing meal after a chili-rich diet compared to the chili-containing meal after the bland diet.

C-peptide blood levels also increased the most after the bland meal after a bland diet and the least after the chili-containing meal after a chili-rich diet, showing the least insulin was secreted after the chili-rich diet and meal.

In addition, the C-peptide/insulin ratio was highest after the chili-containing meal after a chili-rich diet, indicating an increase in the liver's ability to clear insulin.

Besides capsaicin, chilies contain antioxidants, including vitamin C and carotenoids, which might also help improve insulin regulation.

A little chili pepper can really perk up an omelet, add heat to a black bean/sweet potato soup, or transform an ordinary salad dressing. So, spice up your meals with chili peppers. Your body will need to make less insulin and will use it more effectively. No need to go overboard though. Population studies in India and Mexico suggest that loading up on hot chilies at every meal may be linked to increased risk of stomach cancer.

Description

This is the plant that puts fire on your tongue and maybe even a tear in your eye when you eat spicy Mexican, simmering Szechuan, smoldering Indian, or torrid Thai food. Chili peppers belong to the family of foods bearing the Latin name Capsicum.

There are hundreds of different types of chili peppers that vary in size, shape, color, flavor and "hotness." This fleshy berry features many seeds inside a potent package that can range from less than one inch to six inches in length, and approximately one-half to one inch in diameter. Chili peppers are usually red or green in color.

Habanero, chipotle, jalapeno, Anaheim, and ancho are just some of the popular varieties of chili peppers available. Another is cayenne, which is well known as a spice in its dried and powdered form, and usually referred to as cayenne or cayenne pepper (even though that term does refer to the whole pepper, regardless of preparation).

Other ground chili peppers are used to make chili powder. Chili peppers are used as a food and seasoning and revered for their medicinal qualities.

History

It's not surprising that chili peppers can trace their history to Central and South America, regions whose cuisines are renowned for their hot and spicy flavors. Chili peppers have been cultivated in these regions for more than seven thousand years, first as a decorative item and later as a foodstuff and medicine.

It was not until the 15th and 16th centuries that chili peppers were introduced to the rest of the world. Christopher Columbus encountered them on his explorations of the Caribbean Islands and brought them back to Europe. There, they were used as a substitute for black pepper, which was very expensive since it had to be imported from Asia.

Explorer Ferdinand Magellan is credited with introducing chili peppers into Africa and Asia, continents that have since incorporated them into their cuisines and pharmacopeias. Chili peppers are now grown on all continents, however, China, Turkey, Nigeria, Spain and Mexico are among the largest commercial producers.

How to Select and Store

Choose fresh chili peppers that have vivid, deep colors and glossy, firm and taut skins. Their stems should seem hardy and fresh. With the exception of jalapenos, peppers should not have any cracks near the stem end. Avoid those that are wrinkled or have soft areas or black spots.

When purchasing dried chili peppers look for ones that are still vivid in color. If they've lost their color, they've probably lost their flavor as well. Both fresh and dried chili peppers are available throughout the year in most areas.

Even though dried herbs and spices are widely available in supermarkets, explore the local spice stores or ethnic markets in your area. Oftentimes, these stores feature an expansive selection of dried herbs and spices that are of superior quality and freshness than those offered in regular markets. Just like with other dried spices, try to select organically grown dried chili pepper, including cayenne pepper, since this will give you more assurance that it has not been irradiated.

Place unwashed fresh peppers in paper bags or wrap in paper towels and store in the vegetable compartment of the refrigerator, where they should keep for at least one week. Avoid storing peppers in plastic bags as this may result in moisture accumulation, which will cause them to spoil more quickly.

Fresh peppers can also be hung in the sunlight to dry. Once dried, they can be used to make freshly ground chili powder. Dried peppers and chili powders should be kept in a tightly sealed jar, away from sunlight.

Powdered chili pepper, such as cayenne pepper and chili powder, should be kept in a tightly sealed glass jar, away from direct sunlight.

Tips for Preparing and Cooking

Tips for Cooking with Chili Peppers

Be very careful when you are handling and cooking fresh chili peppers. One of the peppers' most pungent compounds, capsaicin, can cause a severe burning sensation if it touches your skin or lips, or comes in contact with your eyes.

Because of this, some people prefer to wear thin rubber gloves when working with chili peppers. If you choose not to do this, make sure to thoroughly wash your hands after handling them. Additionally, you should wash your knife and cutting board after cutting these peppers.

Capsaicin primarily resides in the seeds and fleshy white inner membranes. If you want to enjoy the pungency of peppers but minimize their heat, you can remove these parts, although capsaicin is responsible for much of chili pepper's healing properties.

There is a range of "hotness" between pepper varieties and sometimes also within the same varieties. Therefore, each time you cook with them you may need to adjust the amount you use. Before adding chili peppers to a recipe, taste a little piece to determine the spice level, so you will know how much to add.

How to Enjoy

A Few Quick Serving Ideas
  • The next time you make healthy sautéed vegetables, add some chili peppers to turn up the spice volume.
  • Add chili peppers to your favorite corn bread recipe to give it an extra spark.
  • Add minced chili peppers to yogurt and use as a condiment or dip.
  • Add jalapenos to your favorite tuna salad recipe.
  • Purée fresh chili peppers together with olive oil, garlic, coriander, peppermint, and caraway. If you would like, add your own favorite herbs and spices to this mixture to make your own version of Harissa, a condiment popular in the some Middle Eastern and North African countries.
  • Keep a container of cayenne pepper on the table right next to the pepper mill, so you and your family can add a pinch of extra spice to any of your meals.
  • Cayenne pepper and lemon juice make great complements to cooked bitter greens such as collards, kale and mustard greens.

Individual Concerns

Capsaicin can irritate or burn your eyes or hands. Chili oil can stick to the skin, so wash hands thoroughly after handling the peppers and be cautious about touching your hands to your eyes. Be aware that pepper dust from grinding dried peppers can irritate throat and eyes. You can protect yourself by wearing a dust mask and goggles.

If you find you can't take the heat, cool off with a glass of milk. A protein in milk called casein can help douse capsaicin's fire.

Chili Pepper Belongs to the Nightshade Family

Chili pepper is one of the spices that belong to the nightshade (Solanaceae) family. For helpful information about nightshade vegetables—including our WHFoods Recommendations—please see our article, Which foods are classified as "nightshades," and is it true that foods from this group can potentially contain problematic substances?

Nutritional Profile

Chili peppers are an excellent source of vitamin A (in the form of beta-carotene).

Introduction to Food Rating System Chart

In order to better help you identify foods that feature a high concentration of nutrients for the calories they contain, we created a Food Rating System. This system allows us to highlight the foods that are especially rich in particular nutrients. The following chart shows the nutrients for which this food is either an excellent, very good, or good source (below the chart you will find a table that explains these qualifications). If a nutrient is not listed in the chart, it does not necessarily mean that the food doesn't contain it. It simply means that the nutrient is not provided in a sufficient amount or concentration to meet our rating criteria. (To view this food's in-depth nutritional profile that includes values for dozens of nutrients - not just the ones rated as excellent, very good, or good - please use the link below the chart.) To read this chart accurately, you'll need to glance up in the top left corner where you will find the name of the food and the serving size we used to calculate the food's nutrient composition. This serving size will tell you how much of the food you need to eat to obtain the amount of nutrients found in the chart. Now, returning to the chart itself, you can look next to the nutrient name in order to find the nutrient amount it offers, the percent Daily Value (DV%) that this amount represents, the nutrient density that we calculated for this food and nutrient, and the rating we established in our rating system. For most of our nutrient ratings, we adopted the government standards for food labeling that are found in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's "Reference Values for Nutrition Labeling." Read more background information and details of our rating system.

Chili Peppers, hot, dried
2.00 tsp
5.40 grams
Calories: 15
GI: very low
NutrientAmountDRI/DV
(%)
Nutrient
Density
World's Healthiest
Foods Rating
vitamin E2.06 mg (ATE)1416.2excellent
vitamin A80.05 mcg RAE910.5very good
fiber1.88 g88.9very good
vitamin B60.11 mg67.6very good
vitamin K5.71 mcg67.5very good
copper0.05 mg66.6very good
iron0.93 mg56.1very good
manganese0.09 mg55.3good
vitamin B30.63 mg44.7good
vitamin B20.05 mg44.5good
potassium105.30 mg33.6good
World's Healthiest
Foods Rating
Rule
excellent DRI/DV>=75% OR
Density>=7.6 AND DRI/DV>=10%
very good DRI/DV>=50% OR
Density>=3.4 AND DRI/DV>=5%
good DRI/DV>=25% OR
Density>=1.5 AND DRI/DV>=2.5%

In-Depth Nutritional Profile

In addition to the nutrients highlighted in our ratings chart, here is an in-depth nutritional profile for Chili pepper, dried. This profile includes information on a full array of nutrients, including carbohydrates, sugar, soluble and insoluble fiber, sodium, vitamins, minerals, fatty acids, amino acids and more.

Chili Peppers, hot, dried
(Note: "--" indicates data unavailable)
2.00 tsp
(5.40 g)
GI: very low
BASIC MACRONUTRIENTS AND CALORIES
nutrientamountDRI/DV
(%)
Protein0.73 g1
Carbohydrates2.68 g1
Fat - total0.77 g--
Dietary Fiber1.88 g8
Calories15.231
MACRONUTRIENT AND CALORIE DETAIL
nutrientamountDRI/DV
(%)
Carbohydrate:
Starch-- g
Total Sugars0.39 g
Monosaccharides0.35 g
Fructose0.23 g
Glucose0.12 g
Galactose0.00 g
Disaccharides0.04 g
Lactose0.00 g
Maltose0.00 g
Sucrose0.04 g
Soluble Fiber-- g
Insoluble Fiber-- g
Other Carbohydrates0.42 g
Fat:
Monounsaturated Fat0.17 g
Polyunsaturated Fat0.43 g
Saturated Fat0.13 g
Trans Fat0.00 g
Calories from Fat6.94
Calories from Saturated Fat1.20
Calories from Trans Fat0.00
Cholesterol0.00 mg
Water0.58 g
MICRONUTRIENTS
nutrientamountDRI/DV
(%)
Vitamins
Water-Soluble Vitamins
B-Complex Vitamins
Vitamin B10.01 mg1
Vitamin B20.05 mg4
Vitamin B30.63 mg4
Vitamin B3 (Niacin Equivalents)0.69 mg
Vitamin B60.11 mg6
Vitamin B120.00 mcg0
Biotin-- mcg--
Choline3.59 mg1
Folate1.51 mcg0
Folate (DFE)1.51 mcg
Folate (food)1.51 mcg
Pantothenic Acid0.05 mg1
Vitamin C0.04 mg0
Fat-Soluble Vitamins
Vitamin A (Retinoids and Carotenoids)
Vitamin A International Units (IU)1601.10 IU
Vitamin A mcg Retinol Activity Equivalents (RAE)80.05 mcg (RAE)9
Vitamin A mcg Retinol Equivalents (RE)160.11 mcg (RE)
Retinol mcg Retinol Equivalents (RE)0.00 mcg (RE)
Carotenoid mcg Retinol Equivalents (RE)160.11 mcg (RE)
Alpha-Carotene112.86 mcg
Beta-Carotene810.00 mcg
Beta-Carotene Equivalents960.66 mcg
Cryptoxanthin188.46 mcg
Lutein and Zeaxanthin16.74 mcg
Lycopene1.13 mcg
Vitamin D
Vitamin D International Units (IU)0.00 IU0
Vitamin D mcg0.00 mcg
Vitamin E
Vitamin E mg Alpha-Tocopherol Equivalents (ATE)2.06 mg (ATE)14
Vitamin E International Units (IU)3.07 IU
Vitamin E mg2.06 mg
Vitamin K5.71 mcg6
Minerals
nutrientamountDRI/DV
(%)
Boron-- mcg
Calcium17.82 mg2
Chloride-- mg
Chromium-- mcg--
Copper0.05 mg6
Fluoride-- mg--
Iodine-- mcg--
Iron0.93 mg5
Magnesium8.05 mg2
Manganese0.09 mg5
Molybdenum-- mcg--
Phosphorus16.20 mg2
Potassium105.30 mg3
Selenium1.10 mcg2
Sodium88.56 mg6
Zinc0.23 mg2
INDIVIDUAL FATTY ACIDS
nutrientamountDRI/DV
(%)
Omega-3 Fatty Acids0.03 g1
Omega-6 Fatty Acids0.40 g
Monounsaturated Fats
14:1 Myristoleic0.00 g
15:1 Pentadecenoic0.00 g
16:1 Palmitol0.00 g
17:1 Heptadecenoic0.00 g
18:1 Oleic0.17 g
20:1 Eicosenoic0.00 g
22:1 Erucic0.00 g
24:1 Nervonic0.00 g
Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids
18:2 Linoleic0.40 g
18:2 Conjugated Linoleic (CLA)-- g
18:3 Linolenic0.03 g
18:4 Stearidonic0.00 g
20:3 Eicosatrienoic0.00 g
20:4 Arachidonic0.00 g
20:5 Eicosapentaenoic (EPA)0.00 g
22:5 Docosapentaenoic (DPA)0.00 g
22:6 Docosahexaenoic (DHA)0.00 g
Saturated Fatty Acids
4:0 Butyric-- g
6:0 Caproic0.00 g
8:0 Caprylic-- g
10:0 Capric0.00 g
12:0 Lauric0.00 g
14:0 Myristic0.01 g
15:0 Pentadecanoic-- g
16:0 Palmitic0.09 g
17:0 Margaric0.00 g
18:0 Stearic0.02 g
20:0 Arachidic0.00 g
22:0 Behenate0.00 g
24:0 Lignoceric-- g
INDIVIDUAL AMINO ACIDS
nutrientamountDRI/DV
(%)
Alanine0.02 g
Arginine0.03 g
Aspartic Acid0.09 g
Cysteine0.01 g
Glutamic Acid0.09 g
Glycine0.03 g
Histidine0.01 g
Isoleucine0.02 g
Leucine0.03 g
Lysine0.02 g
Methionine0.01 g
Phenylalanine0.02 g
Proline0.07 g
Serine0.01 g
Threonine0.01 g
Tryptophan0.00 g
Tyrosine0.01 g
Valine0.03 g
OTHER COMPONENTS
nutrientamountDRI/DV
(%)
Ash0.64 g
Organic Acids (Total)-- g
Acetic Acid-- g
Citric Acid-- g
Lactic Acid-- g
Malic Acid-- g
Taurine-- g
Sugar Alcohols (Total)-- g
Glycerol-- g
Inositol-- g
Mannitol-- g
Sorbitol-- g
Xylitol-- g
Artificial Sweeteners (Total)-- mg
Aspartame-- mg
Saccharin-- mg
Alcohol0.00 g
Caffeine0.00 mg

Note:

The nutrient profiles provided in this website are derived from The Food Processor, Version 10.12.0, ESHA Research, Salem, Oregon, USA. Among the 50,000+ food items in the master database and 163 nutritional components per item, specific nutrient values were frequently missing from any particular food item. We chose the designation "--" to represent those nutrients for which no value was included in this version of the database.

References

  • Ahuja KD, Ball MJ. Effects of daily ingestion of chilli on serum lipoprotein oxidation in adult men and women. Br J Nutr. 2006 Aug;96(2):239-42. 2006. PMID:16923216.
  • Ahuja KD, Robertson IK, Geraghty DP, Ball MJ. Effects of chili consumption on postprandial glucose, insulin, and energy metabolism. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Jul;84(1):63-9. 2006. PMID:16825682.
  • Attal N. Chronic neuropathic pain: mechanisms and treatment. Clin J Pain 2000 Sep;16(3 Suppl):S118-30. 2000.
  • Ellis CN, Berberian B, et al. A double-blind evaluation of topical capsaicin in pruritic psoriasis. J Amer Acad Dermatol 29:438-42 1993. 1993.
  • Ensminger AH, Esminger M. K. J. e. al. Food for Health: A Nutrition Encyclopedia. Clovis, California: Pegus Press; 1986. 1986. PMID:15210.
  • Joe B, Lokesh BR. Prophyloatcitc and therapeutic effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, capsaicin and curcumin on adjuvant induced arthritis in ratsl. Nutr Biochem 1997;8:397-407. 1997.
  • Kempaiah RK, Srinivasan K. Integrity of erythrocytes of hypercholesterolemic rats during spices treatment. Mol Cell Biochem 2002 Jul;236(1-2):155-61. 2002.
  • Mori A, Lehmann S, O'Kelly J, Kumagai T, Desmond J, Pervan M, McBride W, Kizaki M, Koeffler HP. Capsaicin, a Component of Red Peppers, Inhibits the Growth of Androgen-Independent, p53 Mutant Prostate Cancer Cells. Cancer Res 2006 Mar 15;66(6):3222-9. 2006. PMID:16540674.
  • Rains C, Bryson HM. Topical capsaicin. A review of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic potential in post-herpetic neuralgia, diabetic neuropathy and osteoarthritis. Drugs Aging 1995 Oct;7(4):317-28. 1995.
  • Robbins W. Clinical applications of capsaicinoids. Clin J Pain 2000 Jun;16(2 Suppl):S86-9. 2000.
  • Schnitzer TJ. Non-NSAID pharmacologic treatment options for the management of chronic pain. Am J Med 1998 Jul 27;105(1B):45S-52S. 1998.
  • Wood, Rebecca. The Whole Foods Encyclopedia. New York, NY: Prentice-Hall Press; 1988. 1988. PMID:15220.

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